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16 JULY 2017 Current Affairs from The Hindu

Kunal Sir, Published On:16-Jul-2017

 CURRENT AFFAIRS: 16.07.2017


1.   Fields Medal winner Mirzakhani dies at 40


·       Maryam Mirzakhani was an Iranian-born mathematician.

·       She was the first woman to win the coveted Fields Medal,the topmost international prize in mathematics, often described as the Mathematics Nobel Prize in 2014 which is awarded by the International Congress of Mathematicians.

·       She proved many theorems about shortest path for curves surfaces – called ‘geodesics’.

·       She also won the 2009 Blumenthal Award for the Advancement of Research in Pure Mathematics and Satter Prize of the American Mathematical Society.

·       She was a professor of mathematics at Stanford University in the United States.

·       Her research topics include Teichmüller theory, hyperbolic geometry, ergodic theory, and symplectic geometry.

·       She obtained her BSc in mathematics (1999) from Sharif University of Technology in Tehran. She went to the United States for graduate work, earning a PhD from Harvard University in 2004.

·       She died after the cancer she had been battling for four years spread to her bone marrow.

Source: The Hindu



2. New galaxy discovered


·       A new galaxy has been discovered by scientists which is around 10 thousand million light years away.

·       This new galaxy is about 1,000 times brighter than the Milky Way.

·       This research was published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters.

·       To discover this, scientists led by Anastansio Diaz-Sanches from Polytechnic University of Cartagena (UPCT) in Spain used gravitational lensing which acted as a sort of magnifier, changing the size and intensity of the apparent image of the original object.

·       For finding this galaxy, a search of the whole sky was carried out, combining the data bases of the satellites WISE and Planck for identifying the brightest sub-millimetre galaxies.

·       This galaxy have a very high rate of star formation. It forms the stars at a rate of 1,000 solar masses per year as compared to the Milky Way galaxy which is forming stars at a rate of some twice a solar mass per year.

·       The new galaxy is so bright that its light is gravitationally amplified.


Everything need to know about Galaxy (very much in news nowadays)


Ø A galaxy is a massive group of stars, star clusters, interstellar gas and dust, and dark matter which is all gravitationally bound together.

Ø The word 'galaxy' is derived from the Greek word galaxias which means "milky", it is a reference to our own galaxy the Milky Way.

Ø There are potentially more than 170 billion galaxies in the observable universe. Some, called dwarf galaxies, are very small with about 10 million stars, while others are huge containing an estimated 100 trillion stars.

Ø Based on shape astronomers have identified various kinds of galaxies including, elliptical galaxies, spiral galaxies, lenticular galaxies and irregular galaxies.

Ø Spiral galaxies are rotating flattened disk-shapes with at least two spiral arms of newer stars extending out from a central bulge of older stars.

Ø The dense molecular clouds of hydrogen gas and dust in the spiral arms of spiral galaxies are areas of intense star formation.

Ø Barred spiral galaxies (like our Milky Way) contain a long bar in the middle with spirals arms coming off the ends. Around two-thirds of spiral galaxies contain a barred structure in their center.

Ø The Hubble classification scheme, lists spiral galaxies as type S, with an 'a', 'b', or 'c' depending on how tight the spiral arms are and the size of the center bulge. Barred spiral galaxies have the symbol SB.

Ø Spiral galaxies are believed to be younger than elliptical galaxies, as spiral galaxies burn through their gas and dust star formation slows, they lose their spiral shape and slowly evolve into elliptical galaxies.

Ø Elliptical galaxies are a mass of stars bunched together in the shape of an elliptical disk.

Ø Elliptical galaxies are often larger, very old and contain little gas and dust, so therefore form very few new stars.

Ø The Hubble classification scheme identifies elliptical galaxies with the letter E, followed by a number representing the degree of ellipticity.

Ø Lenticular galaxies (S0 symbol) have a bright central bulge with a disk-like structure but, unlike spiral galaxies, the disks have no spiral structure and are not actively forming many stars.

Ø Any galaxy that has no obvious spiral or elliptical structure are called irregular galaxies. Some irregular galaxies would have just formed that way while others are the result of other galaxy types crashing into each other.

Ø Our Milky Way Galaxy is a barred spiral galaxy about 120,000 light-years in diameter containing up to 400 billion stars and possibly just as many planets.

Ø Our Solar System is located within the disk of the Milky Way Galaxy, around 27,000 light-years from the Galactic Center of the galaxy.

Ø Supermassive black holes are believed to sit at the center of most galaxies.

Ø Our Milky Way Galaxy is part of a 'Local Group' of galaxies in which the galaxies move relative to each other. The Andromeda Galaxy is the largest galaxy of the Local Group, followed by the Milky Way and the Triangulum Galaxy, there are around 30 other smaller galaxies in the group.

Ø Galaxies often collide with each other. Usually, the stars within each will move past one and other due to the vast space between them. Any gas clouds and dust will interact, forming new stars. Gravity can pull the galaxies into new shapes, two spiral galaxies might join into a new elliptical, others produce bars, rings, or tails.

Ø Starburst is a name for galaxies that form a lot of new stars at a fast rate, usually after much molecular cloud is produced as two galaxies merge.

Source: The Hindu





3.Government launches GST training programme


·       A GST training programme to skill around two lakh youths in six months to handle tax compliance issues like in-voice making have been launched by Government of India.

·       The new training course will cater to the need of GST trained professionals to help businesses in areas such as registration and calculation of tax regime.

·       This training programme will be implemented in 14 states.

·       The people would be trained under the Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY).

·       The ministry also launched a national portal for assessors and trainers besides 51 new PMKVY centres. With this, the total number of PMKVY centres has increased to 200.

·       Currently the country has 15,000 km of gas pipeline and additional 15,000 km will be added and for that "we need skilled people,"

·       During the event, an MoU was inked between the skill development ministry and the water resources ministry.

·       The MoU intends to develop skilled manpower for laying sewerage pipeline, construction of toilets, waste collection and its disposal activities.

·       The MoU would also help in developing skills for preparing products from pious waste materials like flowers, coconuts and hair.



Ø Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) is the flagship scheme of the Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship (MSDE).The objective of this Skill Certification Scheme is to enable a large number of Indian youth to take up industry-relevant skill training that will help them in securing a better livelihood. Individuals with prior learning experience or skills will also be assessed and certified under Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL). Under this Scheme, Training and Assessment fees are completely paid by the Government.


Key Features of PMKVY

§  Short term training

§  Recognition of Prior Learning

§  Special Projects

§  Kaushal and RozgarMela

§  Placement Guidelines

§  Monitoring Guidelines

Source: The Indian Express


4. Muguruza becomes second Spanish woman to win Wimbledon title


·       Garbine Muguruza defeated five-time champion Venus Williams by 7-5, 6-0.

·       She is 23 years old. She is 14 years younger than Venus Williams.

·       This was the largest age gap between the two finalists – Muguruza (23) and Venus (37) since 1994, when 22-year-old Conchita Martinez defeated 37-year-old Martina Navratilova for the Wimbledon title.

·       She lost to Venus William’s younger sister Serena in 2015 Wimbledon final.

·       She is only the second Spanish woman to win Wimbledon after Conchita Martinez in 1994. She is also the first player to beat both Serena and Venus Williams in a Grand Slam final.


Source: The Hindu


5. Sports Ministry lays ground for making online betting legal


·       The groundwork for framing a legislation to legalise online sports betting in India has been started by the Sports Ministry.

·       Still, it will take around two years for the ministry to prepare a draft.

·       The sports Ministry will also take assistance from its counterparts in the UK, where gambling is legal.

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